OneTax GST
News & Updates

CHAPTER XVIII APPEALS AND REVISION


Appeals to Appellate Authority

107. (1) Any person aggrieved by any decision or order passed under this Act or the State Goods and Services Tax Act or the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act by an adjudicating authority may appeal to such Appellate Authority as may be prescribed within three months from the date on which the said decision or order is communicated to such person.

(2) The Commissioner may, on his own motion, or upon request from the Commissioner of State tax or the Commissioner of Union territory tax, call for and examine the record of any proceedings in which an adjudicating authority has passed any decision or order under this Act or the State Goods and Services Tax Act or the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act, for the purpose of satisfying himself as to the legality or propriety of the said decision or order and may, by order, direct any officer subordinate to him to apply to the Appellate Authority within six months from the date of communication of the said decision or order for the determination of such points arising out of the said decision or order as may be specified by the Commissioner in his order.

(3) Where, in pursuance of an order under sub-section (2), the authorised officer makes an application to the Appellate Authority, such application shall be dealt with by the Appellate Authority as if it were an appeal made against the decision or order of the adjudicating authority and such authorised officer were an appellant and the provisions of this Act relating to appeals shall apply to such application.

(4) The Appellate Authority may, if he is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from presenting the appeal within the aforesaid period of three months or six months, as the case may be, allow it to be presented within a further period of one month.

(5) Every appeal under this section shall be in such form and shall be verified in such manner as may be prescribed.

(6) No appeal shall be filed under sub-section (1), unless the appellant has paid—

(a) in full, such part of the amount of tax, interest, fine, fee and penalty arising from the impugned order, as is admitted by him; and

(b) a sum equal to ten per cent. of the remaining amount of tax in dispute arising from the said order, in relation to which the appeal has been filed.

(7) Where the appellant has paid the amount under sub-section (6), the recovery proceedings for the balance amount shall be deemed to be stayed.

(8) The Appellate Authority shall give an opportunity to the appellant of being heard.

(9) The Appellate Authority may, if sufficient cause is shown at any stage of hearing of an appeal, grant time to the parties or any of them and adjourn the hearing of the appeal for reasons to be recorded in writing:

Provided that no such adjournment shall be granted more than three times to a party during hearing of the appeal.

(10) The Appellate Authority may, at the time of hearing of an appeal, allow an appellant to add any ground of appeal not specified in the grounds of appeal, if it is satisfied that the omission of that ground from the grounds of appeal was not wilful or unreasonable.

(11) The Appellate Authority shall, after making such further inquiry as may be necessary, pass such order, as it thinks just and proper, confirming, modifying or annulling the decision or order appealed against but shall not refer the case back to the adjudicating authority that passed the said decision or order:

Provided that an order enhancing any fee or penalty or fine in lieu of confiscation or confiscating goods of greater value or reducing the amount of refund or input tax credit shall not be passed unless the appellant has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the proposed order:

Provided further that where the Appellate Authority is of the opinion that any tax has not been paid or short-paid or erroneously refunded, or where input tax credit has been wrongly availed or utilised, no order requiring the appellant to pay such tax or input tax credit shall be passed unless the appellant is given notice to show cause against the proposed order and the order is passed within the time limit specified under section 73 or section 74.

(12) The order of the Appellate Authority disposing of the appeal shall be in writing and shall state the points for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for such decision.

(13) The Appellate Authority shall, where it is possible to do so, hear and decide every appeal within a period of one year from the date on which it is filed:

Provided that where the issuance of order is stayed by an order of a court or Tribunal, the period of such stay shall be excluded in computing the period of one year.

(14) On disposal of the appeal, the Appellate Authority shall communicate the order passed by it to the appellant, respondent and to the adjudicating authority.

(15) A copy of the order passed by the Appellate Authority shall also be sent to the jurisdictional Commissioner or the authority designated by him in this behalf and the jurisdictional Commissioner of State tax or Commissioner of Union Territory Tax or an authority designated by him in this behalf.

(16) Every order passed under this section shall, subject to the provisions of section 108 or section 113 or section 117 or section 118 be final and binding on the parties.

Powers of Revisional Authority

108. (1) Subject to the provisions of section 121 and any rules made thereunder, the Revisional Authority may, on his own motion, or upon information received by him or on request from the Commissioner of State tax, or the Commissioner of Union territory tax, call for and examine the record of any proceedings, and if he considers that any decision or order passed under this Act or under the State Goods and Services Tax Act or the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act by any officer subordinate to him is erroneous in so far as it is prejudicial to the interest of revenue and is illegal or improper or has not taken into account certain material facts, whether available at the time of issuance of the said order or not or in consequence of an observation by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, he may, if necessary, stay the operation of such decision or order for such period as he deems fit and after giving the person concerned an opportunity of being heard and after making such further inquiry as may be necessary, pass such order, as he thinks just and proper, including enhancing or modifying or annulling the said decision or order.

(2) The Revisional Authority shall not exercise any power under sub-section (1), if—

(a) the order has been subject to an appeal under section 107 or section 112 or section 117 or section 118; or

(b) the period specified under sub-section (2) of section 107 has not yet expired or more than three years have expired after the passing of the decision or order sought to be revised; or

(c) the order has already been taken for revision under this section at an earlier stage; or

(d) the order has been passed in exercise of the powers under sub-section (1):

Provided that the Revisional Authority may pass an order under sub-section (1) on any point which has not been raised and decided in an appeal referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (2), before the expiry of a period of one year from the date of the order in such appeal or before the expiry of a period of three years referred to in clause (b) of that sub-section, whichever is later.

(3) Every order passed in revision under sub-section (1) shall, subject to the provisions of section 113 or section 117 or section 118, be final and binding on the parties.

(4) If the said decision or order involves an issue on which the Appellate Tribunal or the High Court has given its decision in some other proceedings and an appeal to the High Court or the Supreme Court against such decision of the Appellate Tribunal or the High Court is pending, the period spent between the date of the decision of the Appellate Tribunal and the date of the decision of the High Court or the date of the decision of the High Court and the date of the decision of the Supreme Court shall be excluded in computing the period of limitation referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (2) where proceedings for revision have been initiated by way of issue of a notice under this section.

(5) Where the issuance of an order under sub-section (1) is stayed by the order of a court or Appellate Tribunal, the period of such stay shall be excluded in computing the period of limitation referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (2).

(6) For the purposes of this section, the term,––

(i) “record” shall include all records relating to any proceedings under this Act available at the time of examination by the Revisional Authority;

(ii) “decision” shall include intimation given by any officer lower in rank than the Revisional Authority.

Constitution of Appellate Tribunal and Benches thereof

109. (1) The Government shall, on the recommendations of the Council, by notification, constitute with effect from such date as may be specified therein, an Appellate Tribunal known as the Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal for hearing appeals against the orders passed by the Appellate Authority or the Revisional Authority.

(2) The powers of the Appellate Tribunal shall be exercisable by the National Bench and Benches thereof (hereinafter in this Chapter referred to as “Regional Benches”), State Bench and Benches thereof (hereafter in this Chapter referred to as “Area Benches”).

(3) The National Bench of the Appellate Tribunal shall be situated at New Delhi which shall be presided over by the President and shall consist of one Technical Member (Centre) and one Technical Member (State).

(4) The Government shall, on the recommendations of the Council, by notification, constitute such number of Regional Benches as may be required and such Regional Benches shall consist of a Judicial Member, one Technical Member (Centre) and one Technical Member (State).

(5) The National Bench or Regional Benches of the Appellate Tribunal shall have jurisdiction to hear appeals against the orders passed by the Appellate Authority or the Revisional Authority in the cases where one of the issues involved relates to the place of supply.

(6) The Government shall, by notification, specify for each State or Union territory, a Bench of the Appellate Tribunal (hereafter in this Chapter, referred to as “State Bench”) for exercising the powers of the Appellate Tribunal within the concerned State or Union territory:

Provided that the Government shall, on receipt of a request from any State Government, constitute such number of Area Benches in that State, as may be recommended by the Council:

Provided further that the Government may, on receipt of a request from any State, or on its own motion for a Union territory, notify the Appellate Tribunal in a State to act as the Appellate Tribunal for any other State or Union territory, as may be recommended by the Council, subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed.

(7) The State Bench or Area Benches shall have jurisdiction to hear appeals against the orders passed by the Appellate Authority or the Revisional Authority in the cases involving matters other than those referred to in sub-section (5).

(8) The President and the State President shall, by general or special order, distribute the business or transfer cases among Regional Benches or, as the case may be, Area Benches in a State.

(9) Each State Bench and Area Benches of the Appellate Tribunal shall consist of a Judicial Member, one Technical Member (Centre) and one Technical Member (State) and the State Government may designate the senior most Judicial Member in a State as the State President.

(10) In the absence of a Member in any Bench due to vacancy or otherwise, any appeal may, with the approval of the President or, as the case may be, the State President, be heard by a Bench of two Members:

Provided that any appeal where the tax or input tax credit involved or the difference in tax or input tax credit involved or the amount of fine, fee or penalty determined in any order appealed against, does not exceed five lakh rupees and which does not involve any question of law may, with the approval of the President and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed on the recommendations of the Council, be heard by a bench consisting of a single member.

(11) If the Members of the National Bench, Regional Benches, State Bench or Area Benches differ in opinion on any point or points, it shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority, if there is a majority, but if the Members are equally divided, they shall state the point or points on which they differ, and the case shall be referred by the President or as the case may be, State President for hearing on such point or points to one or more of the other Members of the National Bench, Regional Benches, State Bench or Area Benches and such point or points shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority of Members who have heard the case, including those who first heard it.

(12) The Government, in consultation with the President may, for the administrative convenience, transfer—

(a) any Judicial Member or a Member Technical (State) from one Bench to another Bench, whether National or Regional; or

(b) any Member Technical (Centre) from one Bench to another Bench, whether National, Regional, State or Area.

(13) The State Government, in consultation with the State President may, for the administrative convenience, transfer a Judicial Member or a Member Technical (State) from one Bench to another Bench within the State.

(14) No act or proceedings of the Appellate Tribunal shall be questioned or shall be invalid merely on the ground of the existence of any vacancy or defect in the constitution of the Appellate Tribunal.

President and Members of Appellate Tribunal, their qualification, appointment, conditions of service, etc.

110. (1) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as—

(a) the President, unless he has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or is or has been the Chief Justice of a High Court, or is or has been a Judge of a High Court for a period not less than five years;

(b) a Judicial Member, unless he—

(i) has been a Judge of the High Court; or

(ii) is or has been a District Judge qualified to be appointed as a Judge of a High Court; or

(iii) is or has been a Member of Indian Legal Service and has held a post not less than Additional Secretary for three years;

(c) a Technical Member (Centre) unless he is or has been a member of Indian Revenue (Customs and Central Excise) Service, Group A, and has completed at least fifteen years of service in Group A;

(d) a Technical Member (State) unless he is or has been an officer of the State Government not below the rank of Additional Commissioner of Value Added Tax or the State goods and services tax or such rank as may be notified by the concerned State Government on the recommendations of the Council with at least three years of experience in the administration of an existing law or the State Goods and Services Tax Act or in the field of finance and taxation.

(2) The President and the Judicial Members of the National Bench and the Regional Benches shall be appointed by the Government after consultation with the Chief Justice of India or his nominee:

Provided that in the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation or otherwise, the senior most Member of the National Bench shall act as the President until the date on which a new President, appointed in accordance with the provisions of this Act to fill such vacancy, enters upon his office:

Provided further that where the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the senior most Member of the National Bench shall discharge the functions of the President until the date on which the President resumes his duties.

(3) The Technical Member (Centre) and Technical Member (State) of the National Bench and Regional Benches shall be appointed by the Government on the recommendations of a Selection Committee consisting of such persons and in such manner as may be prescribed.

(4) The Judicial Member of the State Bench or Area Benches shall be appointed by the State Government after consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court of the State or his nominee.

(5) The Technical Member (Centre) of the State Bench or Area Benches shall be appointed by the Central Government and Technical Member (State) of the State Bench or Area Benches shall be appointed by the State Government in such manner as may be prescribed.

(6) No appointment of the Members of the Appellate Tribunal shall be invalid merely by the reason of any vacancy or defect in the constitution of the Selection Committee.

(7) Before appointing any person as the President or Members of the Appellate Tribunal, the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government, shall satisfy itself that such person does not have any financial or other interests which are likely to prejudicially affect his functions as such President or Member.

(8) The salary, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of the President, State President and the Members of the Appellate Tribunal shall be such as may be prescribed:

Provided that neither salary and allowances nor other terms and conditions of service of the President, State President or Members of the Appellate Tribunal shall be varied to their disadvantage after their appointment.

(9) The President of the Appellate Tribunal shall hold office for a term of three years from the date on which he enters upon his office, or until he attains the age of seventy years, whichever is earlier and shall be eligible for reappointment.

(10) The Judicial Member of the Appellate Tribunal and the State President shall hold office for a term of three years from the date on which he enters upon his office, or until he attains the age of sixty-five years, whichever is earlier and shall be eligible for reappointment.

(11) The Technical Member (Centre) or Technical Member (State) of the Appellate Tribunal shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office, or until he attains the age of sixty-five years, whichever is earlier and shall be eligible for reappointment.

(12) The President, State President or any Member may, by notice in writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government or, as the case may be, the State Government resign from his office:

Provided that the President, State President or Member shall continue to hold office until the expiry of three months from the date of receipt of such notice by the Central Government, or, as the case may be, the State Government or until a person duly appointed as his successor enters upon his office or until the expiry of his term of office, whichever is the earliest.

(13) The Central Government may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, in case of the President, Judicial Members and Technical Members of the National Bench, Regional Benches or Technical Members (Centre) of the State Bench or Area Benches, and the State Government may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of High Court, in case of the State President, Judicial Members, Technical Members (State) of the State Bench or Area Benches, may remove from the office such President or Member, who—

(a) has been adjudged an insolvent; or

(b) has been convicted of an offence which, in the opinion of such Government involves moral turpitude; or

(c) has become physically or mentally incapable of acting as such President, State President or Member; or

(d) has acquired such financial or other interest as is likely to affect prejudicially his functions as such President, State President or Member; or

(e) has so abused his position as to render his continuance in office prejudicial to the public interest:

Provided that the President, State President or the Member shall not be removed on any of the grounds specified in clauses (d) and (e), unless he has been informed of the charges against him and has been given an opportunity of being heard.

(14) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (13),––

(a) the President or a Judicial and Technical Member of the National Bench or Regional Benches, Technical Member (Centre) of the State Bench or Area Benches shall not be removed from their office except by an order made by the Central Government on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an inquiry made by a Judge of the Supreme Court nominated by the Chief Justice of India on a reference made to him by the Central Government and of which the President or the said Member had been given an opportunity of being heard;

(b) the Judicial Member or Technical Member (State) of the State Bench or Area Benches shall not be removed from their office except by an order made by the State Government on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an inquiry made by a Judge of the concerned High Court nominated by the Chief Justice of the concerned High Court on a reference made to him by the State Government and of which the said Member had been given an opportunity of being heard.

(15) The Central Government, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of India, may suspend from office, the President or a Judicial or Technical Members of the National Bench or the Regional Benches or the Technical Member (Centre) of the State Bench or Area Benches in respect of whom a reference has been made to the Judge of the Supreme Court under sub-section (14).

(16) The State Government, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of the High Court, may suspend from office, a Judicial Member or Technical Member (State) of the State Bench or Area Benches in respect of whom a reference has been made to the Judge of the High Court under sub-section (14).

(17) Subject to the provisions of article 220 of the Constitution, the President, State President or other Members, on ceasing to hold their office, shall not be eligible to appear, act or plead before the National Bench and the Regional Benches or the State Bench and the Area Benches thereof where he was the President or, as the case may be, a Member

Procedure before Appellate Tribunal

111. (1) The Appellate Tribunal shall not, while disposing of any proceedings before it or an appeal before it, be bound by the procedure laid down in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by the principles of natural justice and subject to the other provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder, the Appellate Tribunal shall have power to regulate its own procedure.

(2) The Appellate Tribunal shall, for the purposes of discharging its functions under this Act, have the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 while trying a suit in respect of the following matters, namely:—

(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath;

(b) requiring the discovery and production of documents;

(c) receiving evidence on affidavits;

(d) subject to the provisions of sections 123 and 124 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, requisitioning any public record or document or a copy of such record or document from any office;

(e) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents;

(f) dismissing a representation for default or deciding it ex parte;

(g) setting aside any order of dismissal of any representation for default or any order passed by it ex parte; and

(h) any other matter which may be prescribed.

(3) Any order made by the Appellate Tribunal may be enforced by it in the same manner as if it were a decree made by a court in a suit pending therein, and it shall be lawful for the Appellate Tribunal to send for execution of its orders to the court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction,—

(a) in the case of an order against a company, the registered office of the company is situated; or

(b) in the case of an order against any other person, the person concerned voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

(4) All proceedings before the Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be judicial proceedings within the meaning of sections 193 and 228, and for the purposes of section 196 of the Indian Penal Code, and the Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be civil court for the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

Appeals to Appellate Tribunal

112. (1) Any person aggrieved by an order passed against him under section 107 or section 108 of this Act or the State Goods and Services Tax Act or the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act may appeal to the Appellate Tribunal against such order within three months from the date on which the order sought to be appealed against is communicated to the person preferring the appeal.

(2) The Appellate Tribunal may, in its discretion, refuse to admit any such appeal where the tax or input tax credit involved or the difference in tax or input tax credit involved or the amount of fine, fee or penalty determined by such order, does not exceed fifty thousand rupees.

(3) The Commissioner may, on his own motion, or upon request from the Commissioner of State tax or Commissioner of Union territory tax, call for and examine the record of any order passed by the Appellate Authority or the Revisional Authority under this Act or the State Goods and Services Tax Act or the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act for the purpose of satisfying himself as to the legality or propriety of the said order and may, by order, direct any officer subordinate to him to apply to the Appellate Tribunal within six months from the date on which the said order has been passed for determination of such points arising out of the said order as may be specified by the Commissioner in his order.